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attitudes to them. If such judgements express deep-seated attitudes, the question answers itself. But this explanation does not extend to the case of goodness, which is not a higher-level property with any gap needing filling: to be good is not to have whatever other property plays some functional role. Arguing against Sidgwick's view that all goods must be states of consciousness, Moore asked readers to imagine short essay on prophet muhammad pbuh in english a beautiful world with no minds in it: is this world's existence not better than that of a horribly ugly world (13536)? Finally, Moore took the qualities one admired in a loved one to be simply and therefore impartially good. But Moore was prevented from giving this account by other features of his view: his general emphasis on contemplative forms of love, his restricted list of initial goods, and his strict impartialism about value. (Despite his interest in personal love, Moore never considered the intermediate view that Broad would call self-referential altruism, according to which each person should care more about the good of those close to him, such as his family and friends.) Sidgwick had argued that. The main elements of Moore's non-naturalism moral realism and the autonomy of ethics had been defended earlier by Sidgwick and others and were reasonably well known when Moore wrote. Moore did sometimes make bald assertions of self-evidence, as in his claim in Ethics that it is self-evident that the right is always what most promotes the good (112 and some critics have found this baldness troubling. By the 1960s, it seems fair to say, Moore's moral philosophy was not considered an especially live option. Principia Ethica allowed that it would not affect the essence of his non-naturalism if good were defined in moral terms, say, as what one ought to desire. Stevenson, which says that moral judgements express rather than report feelings and therefore can conflict.
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Whereas Moore sometimes claimed that certain moral propositions are self-evident when considered on their own, philosophers today are more likely to give coherence arguments, appealing to intuitive judgements at different levels of generality and if possible on different topics, to arrive at an overall position. They likewise did not accept the late 20th-century idea that there is a distinct concept of well-being, or of what is good for a person; instead, they defined a person's good as what is simply good and located in his life. But Moore was surely expressing the more plausible view when in Ethics he doubted that pleasure and ideal values always go together (145 and even when he accepted the equivalence claim, he remained intensely interested in what he called the primary ethical question of what. In characterizing the good of aesthetic contemplation Moore gave a further reductive analysis, this time of beauty as that of which the admiring contemplation is good in itself ( Principia Ethica 24950). It stands in contrast to the concept of intensionality, which is concerned with whether the internal definitions of objects are the same. We can ask whether what we desire to desire is good, and likewise for what is more evolved, more unified, or whatever (. These charges are hard to sustain, however. It may be that pleasure is a necessary condition for any value, but that once pleasure is present, other states such as the awareness of beauty or love increase the value of the resulting whole even though alone they have no worth ( Principia Ethica. Once we reject naturalism, however, we can see what Moore thought is self-evident: that there are irreducibly many goods. One did not do anything for or with a loved one; one simply admired her.
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